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Freud´s Journeys

Freud spent a significant portion of his life traveling. His journeys not only offered recreational time but also had a great impact on his work and the development of his theories.

This section will help vacationers and all those interested in psychoanalysis follow the tracks of Freud.

If you’re the owner of a restaurant or hotel that Freud visited and able to prove it, please do not hesitate to contact us: office@theviennapsychoanalyst.at

As a registered user, you are very welcome to comment on our posts.

Austria

   
Bad Gastein, Salzburg
„Only pleasant peace and the twittering of birds!”

In 1916, Freud describes Bad Gastein in Salzburg as “inhumanely beautiful”. The wild and romantic historical area inspired Freud to write many of his famous essays and books. In August, he stayed at the Villa Excelsior – at the time owned by the spa physician of Bad Gastein Dr. Anton Wassing. A few years later, he read Schopenhauer for the first time during his stay at the Villa and wrote the manuscript of “Beyond the Pleasure Principle”. In July and August 1922, Freud and Minna took a cure at the spa in Bad Gastein where he worked on the books “The Ego and the Id” and “Observations on the Theory and Practice of Dream Interpretation”. The hotel was a popular meeting point for the psychoanlyst´s numerous acquaintances and celebrities, e.g. Felix Deutsch, Kurt Redlich, Smith Ely Jelliffe Leopold Königstein, Julius Tandler and Friedrich
Adler which made it increasingly difficult for Freud to focus on his work amid the picturesque landscape. The hotel Excelsior was, and is to this day, the perfect place to escape the stressful working life and enjoy “cultivated idleness and soft tedium

   
Ossiacher Lake, Carinthia

1907 and 1923 Freud spent his holiday at the Grand Hotel Annenheim. However, the hotel´s days were numbered and in 1971, the traditional and historical building was demolished. Only the well-preserved boathouse made of wood has survived down to the present day and still radiates some nostalgia!

   
Semmering, Lower Austria

Freud often visited the Semmering, and in 1928 resided in the Grand Hotel Südbahn. After the Second World War, the hotel resumed operations but remained unsuccessful. The Südbahnhotel was not able to meet modern touristic standards. The building hosted the Reichenau festivals from 2000 to 2010 and – with its few remaining rooms in the main wing and numerous halls - resembled a theater building rather than a hotel.

   
Rax, mountain range on the border of Lower Austria and Styria

His whole life Sigmund Freud was an enthusiastic hiker; whether in the form of his daily walks on the Ringstraße (ring road) in Vienna or through hikes to the various nearby places/mountains during his vacation. He made these trips often accompanied by family members, friends and colleagues.

The Rax, whose region Freud frequently visited (Reichenau, Semmering, etc.), was at that times a very popular region, since it is only one train hour south of Vienna. People such as Arthur Schnitzler, Gustav Mahler, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Stefan Zweig, Franz Werfel, Hermann Bahr, Heimito von Doderer, Arnold Schönberg, Oskar Kokoschka, etc. went all to the mountain range Rax to recover.
Viktor Frankl, the founder of logotherapy, which is a form of existential analysis, also made vacations there.

In the years 1889-1894 alone, Freud climbed the Rax up to three times a week during his summer stays in Reichenau.

In August 1893, he visited the Rax with Oskar Rie. Oskar Rie was one of the oldest friends of Freud and one of his partners at the card game Tarot. He also wrote a study with Freud: (Clinical study of the half-sided cerebral palsy of children).

During his visit in the summer of 1893, Freud also met Aurelia Kronich, who was the daughter of the lessee of the hostelry, in which Freud liked to rest. She consulted him, for her anxiety. Freud has immortalized this encounter as "Katharina" in "Studies on Hysteria".

In July 1891, Freud made a mountain tour with Max Kassowitz (a colleague of Freud, under whose direction, Freud, became head of the Department of Neurology from 1886 to 1896 at the First Public Pediatric Hospitals).

He described one of his tours to the Rax, with his wife Martha, in a letter to his sister-in-law Minna Bernays in 1891, sketching a small drawing describing the ascent from the Prein over the serpent path and their descent over the Törlweg.

Nowadays, there are several memorial plaques reminiscent of his various stays.

Greece

   
Athens, Greece

In August 1904, Freud and his brother Alexander visited the capital of Greece during one of their journeys. It was a shortened vacation because of Alexander’s work obligations and although they originally intended to travel to Corfu, they decided, on the advice of a business colleague, to take the LIod steamer from Trieste to Athens.

80-year-old Freud recounts the story in a letter to Romain Rolland.

The "Temple of Hephaestus" made a lasting impression on Freud. Alexander and he spend a whole day exploring the Acropolis. On the next day, they ran some small errands in the morning before embarking on a train to Corinth and later a ship across the Corinth Canal to Patras.

Years later, he told Marie Bonaparte that "the amber columns of the Acropolis are the most beautiful things he has ever seen in life."

His fascination with Greece was also reflected in his collection of antiques, where he also had an ancient Greek vase and an Athenian statuette, gifted to him by M. Bonaparte, and a Greek marble sculpture given to him by the Italian writer G. Papini. There are also other Greek objects in his collection.

   
Corinth, Greece

Corinth is the place where, according to legend, Oedipus spend his youth, and from where he set out to learn more about his ancestry, and thus fulfilling the prophecy; he slayed his father and married his mother.

Anyone who has dealt with, or even heard of, Sigmund Freud is aware that Freud used this myth to define the "Oedipus Complex" and the parent-child dynanamic.

However, when Freud and his brother Alexander travelled from Athens to Corinth in 1904, this was not the only reason why Freud was impressed by the city.

He also remembered the rest of the myth: Oedipus only gained power over Thebes after he had solved the riddle of the Sphinx.

"Knowledge is power!" had always been an important motto for Freud that had shaped his life.
In 1906, he even received a medal from his students, which reflected this motto:
On one side was his profile and on the other the image of Oedipus with the Sphinx.

Croatia

   
Brijuni Islands (Italian Brioni)

Freud, Otto Rank and Sandor Ferenczi spend a short holiday on the island of Brioni / Brijuni. On the way, they also visited the city of Pula.

This island group is located off the coast from the historical region of Istria in the Croatian Adriatic. Before the islands became part of Austria in 1797, they were part of Venice, until being sold and made habitable by the Austrian business magnate Paul Kupelwieser in 1893. "Veliki Brijuni" is the largest island of the group. The islands themselves were already settled in prehistoric times, but around 1900 malaria started to spread on the islands. Kuppelwieser offered Robert Koch the islands as a place to conduct his malaria eradication experiments, who then succeeded to cure them of malaria.

Kuppelwieser built hotels and paths, he imported animals, cultivated vineyards, and succeeded in creating an exclusive beach resort. It became a meeting point for nobles, industrialists, artists and the upper class in the period before World War I.

During World War I the Austro-Hungarian navy built a submarine base there.

From 1918 to 1943, the islands belonged to Italy. After the family Kuppenwieser had gone bankrupt, the Italian government gained ownership of the islands until 1943 - When the Germans occupied them after their surrender, consequently the islands were bombed in 1945. After World War II., the islands first became part of Yugoslavia, and later, with Istria being the largest area, became part of Croatia. The islands were home to one of President Marshal Tito´s residences, who liked to receive state visitors and Hollywood stars.

Since 1983, the entire Brionian islands are protected and can only be visited via guided tours.

U.S.A.

   
New York City, New York
Worcester, Massachusetts 

1909 Granville Stanley Hall, the first president of the Clark University and one of the first psychologists to acknowledge psychoanalysis, invited Jung and Freud to a conference in September (Freud rejected the first invitation for financial and temporal reasons) to the 20-year anniversary celebration of the university.

Freud, Jung and Ferenczi leave with a steamer from Bremerhafen on 21th August. Jung and Freud try to analyze their dreams during their travels. Here, conflicts arise between Jung and Freud (Freud does not want to "risk his authority").

After arriving on the 29th of August, Freud visits the city in the next few days. He sees, among others things, the Metropolitan Museum, Hammersteins Dachgarten, Columbia University, the American Museum of Natural History, he even visits a cinema. Abraham Brill (he and 15 of his medical colleagues founded the "Psychoanalytic Association New York" in 1911) also shows him Chinatown and the Jewish Ghetto before they go for a walk in Central Park together with Jung.
On September 4, they took the steamer to Fall River (near Newport), where they took the train via Boston to Worcester.

From the 7th to the 11th, Freud holds daily lectures at Clark University and experiences a broad interest in his teachings. For speaking at the conference, both Freud and Jung received honorary degrees from Clark. To this day, a statue at the main entrance honors Freud´s visit there.

This visit marked the beginning of psychoanalytic research in the USA.

Freud also visited the surrounding area in the following days, such as the Niagara Falls, Lake Quinsigamon Buffalo, and Lake Placid. Freud, Jung and Ferenczi are also invited by William James and Putman to the Keene Valley at the foot of the Giant Mountain. Via Albany they travel back to New York, where Freud meets his sister Anna before returning to Bremen on September 21 with the "Kaiser Wilhelm Der Große".

Freud later writes about America: "In Europe I felt as though I were despised; but over there I found myself received by the foremost men as an equal. As I stepped onto the platform at Worcester to deliver my Five Lectures upon Psychoanalysis it seemed like the realization of some incredible day-dream: psychoanalysis was no longer a product of delusion, it had become a valuable part of reality."

The case study of the "ratman" and the history of "little Hans" were published that year.

France

   
Paris, France
Freud frequently traveled to Paris. The first time in October 1885, when he received a grant for five months to study with the influential neurologist Charcot. He visits the Salpêtrière. Originally, he wanted to explore "the study of secondary atrophy and degeneration after infantile brain irritation"; these plans changed as his interest for the phenomenons of hysteria and hypnotism was aroused by Jean-Martin Charcot. Freud even asked Charcot to translate his work "New Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System, especially about Hysteria."
He writes about Charcot in a letter to his future wife Martha in November 1885:
"Charcot, who is one of the greatest physicians and a man whose common sense borders on genius, is simply wrecking all of my aims and opinions. I sometimes come out of his lectures as from out of Notre Dame, with an entirely new idea about perfection."

Later, Freud even said that this lecture was the starting point of psychoanalysis.

During his stay, Freud visits Paris. He visits the Louvre (several times) and described its Egyptian department as "a world as in a
dream". He also visits the Quai d´Orsay, the Dome des Invalides, the Champs-Elysées, the Place de la Concorde and the Tuileries Garden. The Obelisk at the Place de la Concorde impresses him greatly and he writes to Martha: "Think, a real obelisk, with the most beautiful bird heads and sitting males and other hieroglyphs scribbled, its good three thousand years older than the lumpy people around it."
His favorite place in Paris is the Tower of Notre-Dame.
In 1889, Freud attends the International Congress for Experimental and Therapeutic Hypnotism in Paris, this time with Auguste Liebeault and Hippolyte Bernheim.

1910 Freud and Ferenczi make a short stop in Paris before they head off for Milan, and later Florence.

On July 4, 1938, fleeing from the Nazis, Freud, his wife Martha and his daughter Anna stayed for a day in Paris before continuing their journey to Calais and Dover to London. Princess Marie Bonaparte, Ernst Freud, and the American Ambassador Bulitt were at the station to welcome them.

Czech Republic

 
Příbor (German: Freiberg in Mähren)

Freud´s birthplace. On Mai 6, 1856 at 6:30 pm, Sigmund Freud was born in Mähren (today Přibor), Schlossergasse 117, as the son of Jakob and Amalie Freud (born Nathansohn).

Germany

 
Berlin

From December 1926 to January 1927, the couple Freud visited their son Ernst and Oliver in Berlin. There, Sigmund Freud met Albert Einstein and his wife at his son’s place on December 29. He also bumped into Arthur Schnitzler at a hotel in Berlin and came to see his colleagues Max Eitingon and Ernst Simmel. On December 30, he attended a Russian production of Die Fledermaus with the Eitingons. During this time, they stayed at the Hotel Esplanade at the Potsdamer Platz - one of the most popular hotels in Berlin in the Roaring Twenties that was almost completely razed to the ground during an air raid. Today, a small component is part of the Sony Center.

   
Hamburg, Wandsbek

Freud came to see his soon-to-be wife Martha Bernays who lived in Wandsbek. During his visits, he stayed at the old Posthaus. On September 13, 1886 Freud married Martha Bernays at the townhall of Wandsbek (civil marriage). On September 14, the Jewish marriage took place. They spent their honeymoon in Lübeck, Travemünde and Vienna.

   
Bavaria, Germany

Freud often visited Germany as well; among other sights, he visited different places in Bavaria. In 1898, Freud and his sister-in-law Minna went on a round trip through Bavaria, Tyrol and Switzerland. In September 1903, Freud spent a few days in Munich befor traveling with Minna through Bavaria and South Tyrol. Freud and his wife Martha meet Wilhelm Fliess in Munich in August 1894.

Despite being a frequent visitor to Munich, Freud would sometimes only pass through the city on his way to other destinations (1909 on his way to Bremen; 1912 on transit to Bolzano; 1914 to Vienna along with his wife Martha). In 1915, he travels via Munich and Berlin to visit his daughter Sophie in Hamburg.

During two of his longer stays in Munich, he met Eugen Beuler and Carl Gustav Jung in December 1910, and after Freud had gone to Binswangen in Kreuzlingen (Switzerland), Freud visited Leopold and Babette Löwenfeld in 1912.

On the 24th November 1912, Freud stayed for several days in Munich, where a conference of the chairmen (Karl Abraham, Jan van Ophuijsen, Ernest Jones, Franz Riklin and Leonhard Seif) took place. Among other things, they decided to found an "International Journal of Psychoanalysis". During this daylong conference, Freud fainted in front of Jung (Freud had shown "similar symptoms" earlier in the same room). After the meeting, Freud and Jung go for a walk to clear the air between them. Nevertheless, the final break between Freud and Jung occurs in 1913 at the 4th International Psychoanalytic Congress that also took place in Munich (September 5-9). In the course of the congress, Freud held two lectures - one on "The Disposition to Forced Neurosis" and the other "On the Problem of Neurosis Selection".
During this congress, Lou Andreas-Salomé introduces Rilke to Freud. They spent a significant time conversing with Sándor Ferenczi and Viktor von Gebsattel. In addition, Lou Andreas-Salomé and Freud have a confidential conversation with each other as they take a walk in the Munich Hofgarten.

He did not only visit Munich during his travels, but also, for instance, came to see his mother-in-law Emmeline Bernays (1897, 1898 and 1899), who lived near Bad Reichenhall.

In 1901, Freud spends a holiday with his family at the beautiful and nearby Thumsee (1901). Several years ago, he had hiked to Reichenhall and Berchtesgaden. Freud´s children are on vacation in Berchtesgaden with their mother Martha, or with his sister-in-law, without Freud (1899). Freud spends a short holiday at the Königssee. In the same year, he finished the literary chapter of "The Interpretation of Dreams" and sent the first chapter to Wilhelm Fliess for proofreading while on holiday in Berchtsgarden. Alexander Freud comes to visit him in Berchtesgaden for a few days in August. However, he was not the only visitor. The Breuer family also lived there at the time, and Freud met Josef Breuer on a daily basis whenever he wasn´t working on the "Interpretation of Dreams".

During his stay, Freud often suffers from migraine attacks and heart problems, but still manages to finish the manuscript of Interpretation of Dreams, before leaving Berchtesgaden at the end of September while his family remains a few days longer.

  In 1902, Freud was again on vacation in Berchtesgaden at the "Villa Sonnenfels". While Freud was in Salzburg in 1908, he visited Dietfeldhof in Berchtesgaden for the first time. He returned in July 1908 to spend the holiday there, where he worked on "Little Hans" as well as on various essays including "On Infantile Sexual theories" and "About the hysterical attack in general". Ferenczi visits him (Freud hopes his daughter Mathilda will marry Ferenczi) When Freud spent a few weeks in 1922 at the - now demolished - "Pension Moritz" in Berchtesgaden, he met Arthur Schnitzler and went on a trip to Munich.

In 1929, Freud returned to Berchtesgaden. This time, he stays at the Schneewinkellehen near the Königssee. During his weeklong stay, he receives several visits: Ernest Jones and his wife, David Brunswick and Sandor Ferenczi. At the time, Freud was working on his script of "Civilization and its Discontents" (original title: "Civilization and its Misfortune”). His Chow-Chow Dog Lün was run over by a train in Salzburg.

Nuremberg was also a city that Freud frequently visited. In April 1897, he met Fliess, who did not like the city. In 1903 Minna and Freud travel from Nuremberg to Bolzano.

Italy

   
Lavarone, Trentino
"Where the clover blossoms in July..."

Sigmund Freud spent many summers in Italy where he enjoyed taking long walks in the forests of Trentino. Surrounded by a breathtaking scenery, the Hotel du Lac in Laverone was both idyllic resort and haven to the father of Psychoanalysis. The hotel had been previously recommended to him by a Jewish poet, a friend of his brother Alexander, whose biggest wish whilst lying in hospital was to see “the blooming Laburnum (Golden Rain) in Lavarone” one more time. At the beginning of September 1901, he traveled to Riva for a few days, accompanied by Martha´s sister Minna, and mentions in a letter to Wilhelm Fließ meeting Sigmund Mayer, Gustav Tschermak, Friedrich Jodl und Friedrich Dimmer there. In the following years, he frequently visited the area with his family, and in 1907 wrote the essay "Delusion and Dream in Jensen´s Gradiva". In his biography “My Father Sigmund Freud”, Walter Freud remembers the inspiring hiking tours with his father. In 1979, the psychoanalyst Cesare Musatti honoured Sigmund Freud with a plaque and to this day, the Hotel du Lac hosts the annual psychoanalytic congress of the study centre Gradive established in Gionghi in 1990.

Bozen

In 1912, the Freud Family met Sándor Ferencz at the Hotel Erzherzog Heinrich while on holiday.

Karersee, Trentino

In 1912 Freud stayed in Karersee at the Grand Hotel. He searched for mushrooms in the Karer Forest. He also hiked and admired the Rosengarten. Nowadays, the hotel doesn’t exist anymore (converted into apartments) and the only mention of Freud’s visit are in various books about the history of the region.

   
Palermo, Sicily

1920 Freud and Ferenczi spent 5 days in Palermo. There, they stayed at the Hotel de France. The hotel was closed down in 1936. After the Second World War, the University of Palermo bought the hotel and turned it into a pension that was closed down again in 1970. It was only many years later that the building finally got renovated. In 2009, it was re-opened as a guest house for foreign scientists.

Freud about Ferenczi: “My travelling companion is a dear fellow, but dreamy in a disturbing kind of way, and his attitude towards me is infantile. He never stops admiring me, which I don’t like, and is probably sharply critical of me in his unconscious when I am taking it easy. He has been too passive and receptive, letting everything be done for him like a woman, and I really haven’t got enough homosexuality in me to accept him as one. These trips arouse a great longing for a real woman…”
(Letter to Jung by Freud on September 24, 1910)

   
Sicily
During his stay in Palermo (1910), Freud and Ferencszi went on many trips, including an excursion to Syracuse. Before that, they visited the temple Segesta, the excavation site Selinunte and the city of Agrigent. Their sightseeing tours also led them to the city of Castelvetrano (Freud would later forget the name and cite it as an example of a Freudian slip in his book “Psychopathology of Everyday Life”).

Freud „…Sicily is the most beautiful part of Italy and has preserved unique fragments oft he Greek past …..”
(Letter to Jung by Freud)

   
Rome, Italy
Freud already dreamed of Rome in 1897. He recognizes that his yearning for Rom can be described as "deeply neurotic." He even compares himself to Hannibal (1897), studying the "Topography" of Rome in 1898, even though he had never visited Italy before.
He visited the "Eternal City" seven times: 1901, 1902, 1907, 1910, 1912, 1913 and 1923.

In 1901, Freud traveled with his brother Alexander to Rome via Trent, where they visited St. Peter, the Vatican Museums, the Palatine, the Pantheon and the Church of San Pietro in Vincoli where the statue of Moses made by Michelangelo is located.

His second visit to Rome lasted only one day (again with his brother Alexander), but about his third visit, Freud reports in detail to his family: "I have had a wonderful day again; the Villa Borghese is a huge park with castle and museum, which until recently belonged to a Roman prince, but is now the property of the city and is generally accessible, for the good prince made some unfortunate speculations and was obliged to sell everything for three million lire….”
On the occasion of his fourth visit to Rome in 1910, Being short on time, Freud showed his travel companion
only the most important sights, as they were on their way to Sicily. In 1912, they once again stayed together at Rome.

In 1907 he traveled alone to Rome, where he visited along with San Pietro in Vincoli, the Palatine (his favorite place in Rome) and went to the Roman Forum; looked at the Villa Borghese (of course, also the park), he went to the Gianicolo, from where one has a wonderful view of Rome and the Vatican he also visited Castel Sant’ Angelo, the catacombs and, of course, the Vatican museums (Gradiva relief) and the Baths of Diocletian.

In 1913 Freud and Minna Bernays travel together to Rome for two weeks. It is the longest stay of his life in Rome. During this visit, he writes the preface to "Totem and Taboo" and drafts a sketch for "Introduction to Narcissism".
But, alongside all the attractions that Rome offered as a city of art, the relations that Freud saw between this city and his psychoanalytic work (e.g. the excavation sites which he saw as memorial trails still present in the alleged oblivion, as well as the topography of the eternal city) were certainly also a reason that he loved this city so much.

1923 Freud was the last time in Rome with his daughter Anna, who he wanted to show everything (he himself had been operated on shortly before that). It was his last trip abroad.

   
Naples
Freud was a frequent guest of Naples, in 1902 he visited the city for a longer stay with his brother Alexander. They were captivated by the city (they visited the National Archaeological Museum) and the surrounding region with cities like Pompeji, Amalfi, Salerno und Paestum. 8 years later in 1910 he and Sandor Ferenczi paid Naples a visit on their way to Sicily.

Netherlands

   
Den Haag

At the VI. International Psychoanalytic Congress in 1920, Freud and his daughter Anna stayed overnight at the hotel „Paulez“. Unfortunately, this beautiful hotel was bombed and demolished during the Second World War. Today the U.S. Embassy stands in its place.


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